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A number of already approved and marketed envnote are /20968.txt tested for repurposing, including Ofifce.
We aim to investigate the efficacy and safety of Favipiravir in treatment of COVID patients through a systematic review and meta-analysis. All clinical trials which addressed the safety and efficacy of Favipiravir in comparison to other control groups for treatment of patients with confirmed infection with SARS-CoV2 were included. We assessed the risk of bias of the included endnotd using Cochrane Collaboration criteria.
All endnote x7 open office free were performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software version 2, and the risk opne index was calculated. Egger and Begg test was used for assessing publication bias.
Nine studies were included in our meta-analysis. Transferred to ICU and adverse events were not statistically different between two groups. Favipiravir possibly exerted no significant beneficial effect in the term of mortality in the general group of patients with mild to moderate COVID We should consider that perhaps the use of antiviral once the patient has symptoms is too late and this would explain their low efficacy in the endnote x7 open office free setting.
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 outbreak began in late December and rapidly spread worldwide, critically impacting public health systems 1. The clinical characteristics of Coronavirus disease COVID include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, dyspnea, and pneumonia. In the absence fofice any established pharmacological agents, supportive care remains the cornerstone of clinical management for COVID 3.
An emergency use endnote x7 open office free EUA for convalescent plasma was announced on August 23, 6. An EUA was issued for baricitinib on November 19, for use, in combination with remdesivir 8and for casirivimab and imdevimab on November 21 9. Due to the urgency of the situation, endnote x7 open office free number of already approved and marketed drugs are being tested for repurposing, including Favipiravir Favipiravir, also known as T, a purine nucleic acid analog, is one of the antiviral candidates considered in several clinical trials.
It is a chemical used experimentally and was created by the Japanese company Toyama, a subsidiary of Fuji Film, as reported initially by Furuta in Init was approved in Japan as a backup choice for resistant influenza infection and since then have been approved in several countries and is indicated for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate COVID disease As oprn endnote x7 open office free 12th Octoberthere are 37 studies registered in the ClinicalTrials.
Even though multiple articles about Favipiravir are readily available for download online, including some systematic reviews and meta-analyses conducted on only two RCTs at this time 1718192021the scientific community may find it challenging to get an overview regarding the safety and efficacy of this drug. Therefore, we aim to provide this systematic review and meta-analysis of Favipiravir.
To do so, we assess all available completed clinical trials till December 3. Also, we published this protocol in the BMJ Open journal 3. All clinical trials study design which addressed the safety and efficacy of Favipiravir intervention lpen endnote x7 open office free to other control groups comparison for treatment of patients with confirmed infection with SARS-CoV2 population were included.
There were no restrictions concerning gender, age, ethnicity, blinding, follow-up, or publication status. All publications in English and Farsi were included.
It should be noted that some of the endnote x7 open office free mentioned in the protocol were not analyzed due to the lack endnote x7 open office free sufficient data in the final included articles.
The data containing at least one Favipiravir-related outcome endnote x7 open office free side effects were considered sufficient. Articles with unavailable full text in English or Farsi languages or whose full text is not accessible were excluded читать the study. The studies with insufficient or incomplete data were not being incorporated.
We also searched two preprint databases including MedRxiv and Research Square and, the reference lists of all included studies, reviews, and clinical trial registries, for an ongoing clinical trial. In addition, we created an alarm on Google Scholar and officce new related articles.
Once the records endnote x7 open office free been imported to EndNote X7 software and all duplicates have been removed, two reviewers SH and BA manually and independently screened titles, abstracts, and full-texts of нажмите чтобы прочитать больше studies based on predefined eligibility criteria to identify studies concerning the safety посетить страницу efficacy of Favipiravir among patients with COVID All potentials discrepancies считаю, free copy windows 10 даже resolved upon consultation with a third reviewer MA-Z.
Two reviewers SH and BA independently extracted data from included studies, using a pre- piloted data extraction form. The data extraction form includes the following items; authors name, year of the publication, study design, study sample, country of origin, mean age of participants, gender, the severity of diseases, comorbidities, type of intervention and dose, control group, follow up, randomization, blinding, allocation concealment, primary and secondary outcomes, and adverse events 3 All potentials discrepancies were resolved by consultation with a third reviewer RM.
Two reviewers MF and FH independently assessed the risk of bias among the included studies. We assessed the risk of bias of the included studies using Cochrane Collaboration criteria, including seven items of selection opfn random sequence generation and allocation concealmentperformance bias, detection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other forms of bias 3 Any discrepancies were resolved upon consultation with a third reviewer MA-Z.
CMA software has the ability to combine different indices and to combine the effect of sample size and the difference of the index being compared We used the I 2 statistics and Cochran test endnofe significantly less than 0. In cases where there was endnote x7 open office free, we performed the random-effect model. We also used a subgroup analysis based on follow up days for clinical improvement and viral clearance.
One-leave-out sensitivity analysis were conducted for all outcomes based on Cochrane recommendation. We identified a total of records after searching the databases. After the removal of duplicate records, the pffice and abstracts of records were screened. Eight hundred eighty-five records were excluded after title and abstracts screening, and 24 records were assessed for full-text screening. A total как сообщается здесь 15 records were excluded based on eligibility criteria.
Finally, endnote x7 open office free studies were included in our meta-analysis 29303132 kffice, 3334353637 Fig. Nine studies encompassing patients were included. According to the geographical area, four studies were conducted in China Only one study was nonrandomized. The minimum follow-up time was 10 days, and the maximum was 30 days.
The doses of Favipiravir and control drugs in each study were different. All studies registered in clinical trial registries. The summary characteristics of the included studies have been summarized in Table посетить страницу источник. Eight Six studies None of the studies reported acceptable blinding for participants and personnel.
Only one study The risk of bias summary and risk of bias graph is reported in Supplementary file 2 and 3. Among the included studies, six studies assessed clinical improvement during 14 days after hospitalization, and five studies were assessed during seven days after hospitalization.
The meta-analysis of clinical improvement of Favipiravir endnote x7 open office free COVID patients black circle: individual cree orange diamond: overall of subgroups; red diamond: overall of all included studies. The meta-analysis of viral endnote x7 open office free of Favipiravir on COVID patients orange diamond: summery of sub groups; red diamond: offkce of total.
The meta-analysis of requiring supplemental oxygen therapy of Favipiravir on COVID patients red diamond: summery of total. Almost all adverse events of Favipiravir were mild to moderate and in an equal or lower rate compared to the control groups.
The most prevalent adverse events included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, chest pain as well as increase in serum liver transaminase and uric acid levels. The results of sensitivity analysis did not show any ffree in all outcomes and confirmed the previous results. The number of infected cases, as well as the mortality rate associated with the virus, has astronomically raised around the world.
The main challenge of COVID is the lack of approved pharmacotherapy and vaccination, as well as the absence of evidence for reliable treatment options Although various agents are undergoing clinical trials, the urgency of the situation has endnote x7 open office free scientists repurpose the antiviral agents. Favipiravir, as a ribonucleotide analog and selective inhibitor of the viral RNA polymerase enzyme, can cause widespread antiviral activity against RNA-carrying viruses, thereby preventing replication and transcription of the viral genome It has been approved for the treatment of new influenza viruses in Japan and China.
It has also been shown to be effective against Ebola and RNA viruses caused by viral hemorrhagic fever /29102.txt, this drug revealed controversial results in different clinical trials conducted on COVID Our meta-analysis was carried out on nine endnote x7 open office free studies with patients.
The endnote x7 open office free results demonstrated the clinical improvement after seven and 14 days of hospitalization was more remarkable in patients taking Favipiravir than those receiving other drugs. Another meta-analysis conducted by Shrestha et offide.
Udwadia et al. The viral clearance after 14 days of hospitalization among patients taking Favipiravir was more than those taking other drugs.
However, this difference was not statistically significant after seven and ten days, which could be related to inappropriate dose and duration of treatment with Favipiravir In another meta-analysis by Shrestha et al. This difference between the results of our analysis and the mentioned meta-analysis might be due to an insufficient number of studies and a small sample size in the Shrestha et endnote x7 open office free.
Our study showed requiring supplemental oxygen therapy among patients taking Favipiravir was less than those taking control drugs. Dhan Bahadur Shrestha et al.
The results of the present study showed that the groups ffee with Favipiravir had a lower chance of side effects compared to the control groups. This finding ссылка на продолжение consistent offive the meta-analysis carried out by Shrestha et al. Khamis et al. Erdem et al. The most common side effects were elevation of liver enzymes, total bilirubin, and uric acid, as well as gastrointestinal disorders. This trial consists of five patients, and All five experienced mild to moderate rise in liver enzymes, three of them nausea, and one of them neutropenia.