Resetting Windows 8: A simple guide – IONOS.

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To reverse the order, the user simply can perform the sort by the same property again. The sort order has also been made more intuitive compared to the one in Windows For file names containing numbers Windows Explorer now tries to sort based on numerical value rather than just comparing each number digit by digit for every character position in the file name. The right pane of Windows Explorer has a “Show in Groups” feature which allows Explorer to separate its contents by headings based on any field which is used to sort the items.

Items can thus be grouped by any detail which is turned on. Microsoft introduced animated “Search Companions” in an attempt to make searching more engaging and friendly; the default character is a puppy named Rover, with three other characters Merlin the magician, Earl the surfer, and Courtney also available. These search companions powered by Microsoft Agent technology, bear a great deal of similarity to Microsoft Office ‘s Office Assistants , even incorporating “tricks” and sound effects.

If the user wishes, they can also turn off the animated character entirely. The search capability itself is fairly similar to Windows Me and Windows , with some important additions. Search can also be instructed to search only files that are categorically “Documents” or “Pictures, music and video” searching by perceived type ; this feature is noteworthy largely because of how Windows determines what types of files can be classified under these categories.

Using Tweak UI , the search user interface can be restored to the one used by Windows Windows XP improves image preview by offering a Filmstrip view which shows images in a single horizontal row and a large preview of the currently selected image above it. Filmstrip view like any other view can be turned on per folder.

This view will be available if the new “Common Tasks” folder view is selected, not with “Windows Classic” folder view. Aside from the Filmstrip view mode, there is a ‘Thumbnails’ view, which displays thumbnail -sized images in the folder and also displays images a subfolder may be containing 4 by default overlaid on a large folder icon.

A folder’s thumbnail view can be customized from the Customize tab accessible from its Properties, where users can also change the folder’s icon and specify a template type pictures, music, videos, documents for that folder and optionally all its subfolders. The size and quality of thumbnails in “Thumbnails” view can be adjusted using Tweak UI or the registry. Windows XP optionally caches the thumbnails in a ” Thumbs.

Thumbnails can be forced to regenerate by right-clicking the image in Thumbnail or Filmstrip views and selecting “Refresh thumbnail”. AutoPlay examines newly discovered removable media and devices and, based on content such as pictures, music or video files, launches an appropriate application to play or display the content.

AutoPlay can be enhanced by AutoPlay-compatible software and hardware. It can be configured by the user to associate favourite applications with AutoPlay events and actions. These actions are called AutoPlay Handlers and there are sets of Handlers associated with various types of content. New AutoPlay handlers can get added to the system when additional software is installed. AutoPlay settings can be configured per-device in Windows XP from the device’s properties. When a user inserts an optical disc into a drive or attaches a USB camera, Windows detects the arrival and starts a process of examining the device or searching the medium.

It is looking for properties of the device or content on the medium so that AutoPlay can present a set of meaningful options to the user. When the user makes a particular choice, they also have the option to make that selection automatic the next time Windows sees that content or device.

It supersedes part of the functions of Imaging for Windows in previous versions of Windows. The Windows Picture and Fax Viewer is integrated with Windows Explorer for functions like slideshow, email, printing etc. It supports full file management from within the viewer itself, that is, right clicking the image shows the same context menu as the one shown when an image is right clicked in Windows Explorer.

Images can be set as the desktop wallpaper from the context menu. It supports successive viewing of all images in current folder and looping through images, [17] that is, after viewing the last image in a directory, it again shows the first image and vice versa. By default, images smaller than the user’s display resolution are shown at their actual size. If an image is larger than the display resolution, it is scaled to fit the screen Best Fit. When this is done, scroll bars allow for viewing of all areas of the image.

The wizard shows a preview of what the printed page will look like with the currently specified options. Using Tweak UI , the time between images during a slideshow can be adjusted.

GIF files are shown with full animation, even when zoomed. Areas of the image can be selected and concealed. Windows Picture and Fax Viewer saves and remembers its window position and size and supports keyboard shortcuts for all of its operations. Raw image formats , which are the preferred formats in professional photography are not supported, however, Microsoft released a later update called RAW Image Thumbnailer and Viewer for Windows XP for viewing certain raw image files.

The Text Services Framework is designed to offer advanced language and word processing features to applications. It supports features such as multilingual support, keyboard drivers, handwriting recognition , speech recognition , as well as spell checking and other text and natural language processing functions.

It is also downloadable for older Windows operating systems. The language bar enables text services to add UI elements to the toolbar and enables these elements when an application has focus. From the Language Bar, users can select the input language, and control keyboard input, handwriting recognition and speech recognition. The language bar also provides a direct means to switch between installed languages, even when a non-TSF-enabled application has focus.

Although an upgrade of the Windows kernel, there are major scalability, stability and performance improvements, albeit transparent to the end user. Windows XP includes simultaneous multithreading hyperthreading support.

Simultaneous multithreading is a processor’s ability to process more than one data thread at a time. Windows XP supports a larger system virtual address space —— 1.

The Windows XP Memory Manager is redesigned to consume less paged pool, allowing for more caching and greater availability of paged pool for any component that needs it.

The total size of memory-mapped files in Windows was limited because the memory manager allocated the Prototype Page Table entries PPTEs for the entire file, even if an application created mapped views to only parts of the file. A benefit of this, for example, is in case of making backups of large files on low memory systems. The paged pool limit of MB has been lifted from the Memory Manager in Windows XP, with unmapped views dynamically reusable by the memory manager depending on pool usage.

Memory pages in working sets are trimmed more efficiently for multiprocessor systems depending on how recently they were accessed. The dispatcher lock contention has been reduced and the Page Frame Number PFN lock has been optimized for increased parallelism and granularity.

Windows XP uses push locks on the event synchronization object if there is no contention as they support shared and exclusive acquisition. Push locks protect handle table entries in the Executive , and in the Object Manager to protect data structures and security descriptors and Memory Manager to protect AWE -related locks.

The kernel page write protection limit in Windows XP is enabled on systems up to MB of RAM beyond which large pages are enabled for increased address translation performance.

Windows XP introduces the CreateMemoryResourceNotification function which can notify user mode processes of high or low memory availability so applications can allocate more memory or free up memory as necessary. In Windows XP, the registry is reimplemented outside of the paged pool; the registry hives are memory mapped by the Cache Manager into the system cache, eliminating the registry size limit. The registry size is now limited only by the available disk space.

The System hive still has a maximum size, but it has been raised from 12 MB to MB, eliminating the issue previous Windows versions faced [37] of being unable to boot because of a large or fragmented System hive. The Configuration Manager has been updated to minimize the registry’s memory footprint and lock contention , reduce fragmentation and thus page faults when accessing the registry, and improved algorithms to speed up registry query processing.

An in-memory security cache eliminates redundant security descriptors. Windows XP supports cross user session debugging, attaching the debugger to a non-crashing user-mode program, dumping the process memory space using the dump command, and then detaching the debugger without terminating it.

Debugging can be done over a FireWire port and on a local system. The debug heap can be disabled and the standard heap be used when debugging. Heap leak detection can be enabled when processes exit and a debugger extension can be used to investigate leaks.

Also introduced is a new heap performance-monitoring counter. Windows XP introduces a new low fragmentation heap policy disabled by default which allocates memory in distinct sizes for blocks less than 16KB to reduce heap fragmentation. In low memory conditions, “must succeed” calls are denied, causing a slowdown but preventing a bug check. NTFS 3. There are new APIs to preserve original short file names, to retrieve a list of mount points drive letters and mounted folder paths for the specified volume, and to enable applications to create very large files quickly by setting the valid data length on files without force-writing data with zeroes up to the VDL SetFileValidData function.

For instance, this function can be used to quickly create a fixed size virtual machine hard disk. Upon system boot or the launch of an application, any data and code in the trace that is not already in memory is prefetched from the disk.

The previous prefetching results determine which scenario benefited more and what should be prefetched at the next boot or launch. The prefetcher also uses the same algorithms to reduce application startup times. To reduce disk seeking even further, the Disk Defragmenter is called in at idle time to optimize the layout of these specific files and metadata in a contiguous area. Boot and resume operations can be traced and analyzed using Bootvis.

Windows XP includes a Fast Logon Optimization feature that performs logon asynchronously without waiting for the network to be fully initialized if roaming user profiles are not set up. Group Policy is applied in the background, and startup or logon scripts execute asynchronously by default. Windows XP reconciles local and roaming user profiles using a copy of the contents of the registry.

The user is no longer made to wait as in Windows until the profile is unloaded. Windows XP saves locked registry hives with open keys after 60 seconds so that roaming profile changes can be saved back to the server. The problem left is that the computer cannot recover the memory the profile uses until it can be unloaded.

To make sure the user profiles are completely reconciled correctly during logoff, Microsoft has released the User Profile Hive Cleanup service for Windows XP, which they later included in Windows Vista. Windows XP offers enhancements for usability, resilience against corruption and performance of roaming user profiles. To accommodate the scenario where an older profile would overwrite a newer server profile due to Windows XP’s Fast Logon feature, Windows XP ensures in such a situation that the user registry hive is copied from the server to the local profile.

Deletion of profiles marked for deletion at the next logoff does not fail for locked profiles. For workgroup computers, Windows XP no longer deletes the profiles of users belonging to the Guests group. Windows XP includes some changes to the behavior of Offline Files. Shared folders from DFS namespaces can be made available offline. Beginning with Windows XP, folders redirected to the network are automatically made available offline using Offline Files , although this can optionally be disabled through Group Policy.

For older Windows NT 4. In Windows XP, System Restore is configurable per volume and the data stores are also stored per volume. A Disk Cleanup handler allows deleting all but the most recent Restore Point. System Restore supports Group Policy. Automated System Recovery is a feature that provides the ability to save and restore Windows and installed applications, the system state , and critical boot and system files from a special backup instead of a plain reinstall.

A common issue in previous versions of Windows was that users frequently suffered from DLL hell , where more than one version of the same dynamically linked library DLL was installed on the computer. As software relies on DLLs, using the wrong version could result in non-functional applications, or worse. These operating systems allowed loading a private version of the DLL if it was placed in the application’s folder by the developer, instead of the system directory and must be registered properly with the system.

The technology keeps multiple digitally signed versions of a shared DLL in a centralized WinSxS folder and runs them on demand to the appropriate application keeping applications isolated from each other and not using common dependencies. Manifests and the assembly version number are used by the OS loader to determine the correct binding of assembly versions to applications instead of globally registering these components.

Instead, the metadata and CLSIDs of the classes implemented in the component are declared in an assembly manifest described using XML , stored either as a resource in the executable or as a separate file installed with the component. During application loading, the Windows loader searches for the manifest. Only if the lookup fails is the registry scanned. Windows Error Reporting collects and offers to send post-error debug information a memory dump using the internet to the developer of an application that crashes or stops responding on a user’s desktop.

No data is sent without the user’s consent. When a dump or other error signature information reaches the Microsoft server, it is analyzed and a solution is sent back to the user if one is available. Windows Error Reporting runs as a Windows service and can optionally be entirely disabled. Software and hardware manufacturers may access their error reports using Microsoft’s Winqual program.

This allows distributing solutions as well as collecting extra information from customers such as reproducing the steps they took before the crash and providing them with support links. On old versions of Windows, when users upgrade a device driver, there is a chance the new driver is less stable, efficient or functional than the original.

Reinstalling the old driver can be a major hassle and to avoid this quandary, Windows XP keeps a copy of an old driver when a new version is installed.

If the new driver has problems, the user can return to the previous version. This feature does not work with printer drivers. As Windows XP merged the consumer and enterprise versions of Windows, it needed to support applications developed for the popular and consumer-oriented Windows 9x platform on the Windows NT kernel.

Microsoft addressed this by improving compatibility with application-specific tweaks and shims and by providing tools such as the Application Compatibility Toolkit AppCompat or ACT [58] to allow users to apply and automate these tweaks and shims on their own applications.

Windows Movie Maker 2 introduced numerous new transitions, effects, titles and credits, a task pane, resizable preview window with dimensions, improved capture and export options, an AutoMovie feature, saving the final video back to tape and custom WMV export profiles.

Windows XP includes advances in Broadcast Driver Architecture for receiving and capturing analog and digital TV broadcasts complete with signal demodulation, tuning, software de-multiplexing, electronic program guide store, IP data broadcasting etc. VMR-7 can mix multiple streams and graphics with alpha blending, allowing applications to draw text such as closed captions and graphics such as channel logos or UI buttons over the video without flickering, and support compositing to implement custom effects and transitions.

VMR-7 features a “windowless mode” for applications to easily host video playback within any window and a “renderless playback mode” for applications to access the composited image before it is rendered. DirectShow 8 includes AVStream , a multimedia class driver for video-only and audio-video kernel streaming.

The Scanner and Camera Wizard based on Windows Image Acquisition and other common dialogs for WIA devices have been improved in Windows XP to show the media information and metadata, rotate images as necessary, categorize them into subfolders, capture images and video in case of a still or video camera, crop and scan images to a single or multi-page TIFF in case of a scanner.

The Picture Transfer Protocol PTP implementation has been updated to support all mandatory and optional commands in the PTP standard, and object tree support which allows secondary files associated with a parent file to be grouped and transferred concurrently.

Windows XP includes technology from Roxio which allows users to directly burn files to a compact disc through Windows Explorer. Previously, end users had to install CD burning software. Windows XP’s CD burning support does not do disk-to-disk copying or disk images , although the API can be used programmatically to do these tasks. Audio CDs are burnt using track-at-once mode. WSF has been introduced besides. VBS and. JS which can store in an XML node in the same file, extra information besides script code, such as digital signature blocks, runtime directives or instructions to import external code.

The WshShell object now supports a ‘CurrentDirectory’ read-write method. Scripts can now be digitally signed as well as verified programmatically using the Scripting. Signer object in a script itself, provided a valid certificate is present on the system. WSH can thus decide whether or not to execute the script after verification. The signature block is stored in a commented section in the script file for backward compatibility with older WSH versions. By using Software Restriction Policies supported in Windows XP and later, a system may also be configured to execute only those scripts which have been digitally signed, thus preventing the execution of untrusted scripts.

Local scripts can also run on a remote machine with the new WScript. The remote script can be monitored by using the Status property. WSH 5. In earlier versions of Windows Script, to use arguments, one had to access the WshArguments collection object which could not be created externally and required that the person running the script know the order of the arguments, and their syntax and values.

Named arguments are grouped in the Named collection object and have the usual methods like Item, Count, Length as well as an Exists method. Password COM automation object, implemented in the scriptpw. It is built on Terminal Services technology RDP , and is similar to “Remote Assistance”, but allows remote users to access local resources such as printers. There are several resources that users can redirect from the remote server machine to the local client, depending upon the capabilities of the client software used.

For instance, “File System Redirection” allows users to use their local files on a remote desktop within the terminal session, while “Printer Redirection” allows users to use their local printer within the terminal session as they would with a locally or network shared printer.

The clipboard can also be shared between the remote computer and the local computer. Remote Assistance allows sending invitations to the support person by email, Windows Messenger or saving the invitation as a file. The computer can be controlled by both, the support person connecting remotely as well as the one sending the invitation. Chat, audio-video conversations and file transfer are available. Windows XP introduces Fast User Switching [96] and a more end user friendly Welcome Screen with a user account picture which replaces the Classic logon prompt.

Fast user switching allows another user to log in and use the system without having to log out the previous user and quit his or her applications. Previously on both Windows Me and Windows only one user at a time could be logged in except through Terminal Services , which was a serious drawback to multi-user activity.

Fast User Switching, like Terminal Services, requires more system resources than having only a single user logged in at a time and although more than one user can be logged in, only one user can be actively using their account at a time. This feature is not available when the Welcome Screen is turned off, such as when joined to a Windows Server Domain or with Novell Client installed. Windows Installer 2.

Windows Disk Defragmenter was updated to alleviate several restrictions. The defragmenter supports NTFS volumes with cluster sizes larger than 4 kilobytes. A command-line tool, defrag. Users who are members of the Power Users group can schedule defragmentation. It has been updated to display process names longer than 15 characters in length on the Processes tab, which used to be truncated in Windows The Delete key can also be used to terminate processes on the Processes tab.

A new Networking tab shows statistics relating to each of the network adapters present in the computer. By default the adapter name, percentage of network utilization, link speed and state of the network adapter are shown, along with a chart of recent activity. More options can be shown by choosing Select columns The Users tab shows all users that currently have a session on the computer. On server computers there may be several users connected to the computer using Terminal Services.

There may also be multiple users logged onto the computer at one time using Fast User Switching. Users can be disconnected or logged off from this tab.

Holding down Ctrl while clicking New Task opens a command prompt. User -type certificates can be auto-enrolled and renewed. Root CA certificates now also auto-update via Microsoft Update.

Windows XP can enroll version 2 certificate templates which have many configurable attributes. There are also numerous improvements to certificate status checking, chain building and revocation checking, path validation and discovery. Windows XP includes several Encrypting File System improvements [] The most notable improvement is that multiple user accounts can share access to encrypted files on a file-by-file basis. A Details button in the Advanced file attributes dialog in the file’s properties allows adding or removing additional users who can access the EFS-encrypted file, and viewing the certificate thumbprint and the Data Recovery Agent account.

EFS certificates are autoenrolled in the CA and there is support for revocation checking on certificates used when sharing encrypted files. Unlike Windows , there is no default local Data Recovery Agent and no requirement to have one, although a self-signed certificate for the recovery agent can be generated using cipher. Windows XP can also encrypt files on a remote server with NTFS if the server is trusted for delegation in Active Directory and the user’s certificate and private key are loaded in the local profile on the server.

If a roaming user profile is used, it will be copied locally. The command line utilities cipher , copy and xcopy have been updated in Windows XP. For faster cache validation, the time for how long the user session key and certificate chain are cached can be adjusted.

This disk can be used to reset the password using the Password Reset Wizard from the logon screen. The user’s RSA private key is backed up using an offline public key whose matching private key is stored in one of two places: the password reset disk if the computer is not a member of a domain or in Active Directory if it is a member of a domain.

An attacker who can authenticate to Windows XP as LocalSystem still does not have access to a decryption key stored on the PC’s hard drive. If the user changes the password back to the original password, EFS encrypted files can be recovered. Windows XP prompts for credentials upon authentication errors and allows saving those that use Integrated Windows Authentication to a secure roaming keyring store protected by the Data Protection API.

Saved credentials can be managed from the Stored User Names and Passwords item in the User accounts control panel. If a certificate authority is present, then users can a select an X.

When that same resource is accessed again, the saved credentials will be used. Windows XP introduces Software Restriction Policies and the Safer API [] [] By use of Software Restriction Policies, a system may be configured to execute or install only those applications and scripts which have been digitally signed or have a certain trust level, thus preventing the execution of untrusted programs and scripts.

Administrators can define a default rule using the Local Security Policy snap-in, and exceptions to that rule. The types of rules include: Hash Rule , Path Rule , Certificate Rule and Zone Rule which identify a file by its hash, path, software publisher’s certificate or Internet Explorer-zone respectively.

For example, an ActiveX control can be restricted to run only for a particular domain by specifying a certificate rule-based software restriction policy. Windows wireless support did not support seamless roaming and auto-configuration. Windows XP’s Wireless Zero Configuration service supports automatic wireless network configuration with re-authentication when necessary thus providing seamless roaming capability and setting the preferred order of connections.

In the absence of a wireless access point, Windows XP can set up an ad hoc wireless network. It has a Quality of Service Packet Scheduler component. Internet Connection Sharing also includes a local DNS resolver in Windows XP to provide name resolution for all network clients on the home network, including non-Windows-based network devices.

When multiple applications are accessing the internet simultaneously without any QoS and the connection isn’t fast enough, the TCP receive window size is set to the full window of data in transit that the first application uses in the connection until a steady state is reached.

Subsequent connections made by other applications will take much longer to reach an optimal window size and the transmission rate of the second or third application will always be lower than that of the application that established the connection first. On such slow links, the QoS component in Windows XP automatically enables a Deficit round robin scheduling scheme, which creates a separate queue for each application and services these queues in a round-robin fashion.

IPv6 has to be installed and configured from the command line using the netsh interface ipv6 context as there is no GUI support. After the network interface’s link-local address is assigned, stateless autoconfiguration for local and global addresses can be performed by Windows XP. Static IPv6 addresses can be assigned if there is no IPv6 router on the local link.

Transition mechanisms such as manually configured tunnels and 6to4 can be set up. Privacy extensions are enabled and used by default. Teredo also helps traverse cone and restricted NATs. Teredo host-specific relay is enabled when a global IPv6 address has been assigned, otherwise Teredo client functionality is enabled.

An open source DHCPv6 implementation called Dibbler is available, [] although stateless autoconfiguration largely makes it unnecessary. Windows XP includes the Background Intelligent Transfer Service, a Windows service that facilitates prioritized, throttled, and asynchronous transfer of files between machines using idle network bandwidth. BITS constantly monitors network traffic for any increase or decrease in network traffic and throttles its own transfers to ensure that other foreground applications such as a web browser get the bandwidth they need.

BITS also supports resuming transfers in case of disruptions. BITS version 1. From version 1. Windows XP components such as Windows Update use BITS to download updates so only idle bandwidth is used to download updates and downloading can be resumed in case network connectivity is interrupted. BITS uses a queue to manage file transfers and downloads files on behalf of requesting applications asynchronously, i.

If your PC came with Windows 8. Check the info that came with your PC to see if your PC manufacturer provided these discs or media. In some cases, you might have created them when you first set up your PC.

For more info, see Create a USB recovery drive. If you upgraded your PC to Windows 8. If your PC isn’t performing as well as it once did, and you don’t know why, you can refresh your PC without deleting any of your personal files or changing your settings. Warning: Apps you installed from websites and DVDs will be removed. Apps that came with your PC and apps you installed from Microsoft Store will be reinstalled.

Windows puts a list of removed apps on your desktop after refreshing your PC. Swipe in from the right edge of the screen, tap Settings , and then tap Change PC settings. If you’re using a mouse, point to the upper-right corner of the screen, move the mouse pointer down, click Settings , and then click Change PC settings.

Tap or click Update and recovery , and then tap or click Recovery. Under Refresh your PC without affecting your files , tap or click Get started.

If you want to recycle your PC, give it away, or start over with it, you can reset it completely. This removes everything and reinstalls Windows.

Warning: All of your personal files will be deleted and your settings will be reset. All apps that you installed will be removed. Only apps that came with your PC will be reinstalled.

Under Remove everything and reinstall Windows , tap or click Get started. Note: You’ll be asked to choose whether you want to erase data quickly or thoroughly. If you choose to erase data quickly, some data might be recoverable using special software. If you choose to erase data thoroughly, this will take longer but it makes recovering data less likely. If you think an app or driver that you recently installed caused problems with your PC, you can restore Windows back to an earlier point in time, called a restore point.

Windows automatically creates a restore point when you install desktop apps and new Windows updates, if the last restore point is older than 7 days.

You can also create a restore point manually at any time. Swipe in from the right edge of the screen, and then tap Search. If you’re using a mouse, point to the upper-right corner of the screen, move the mouse pointer down, and then click Search.

Enter Control Panel in the search box, and tap or click Control Panel. Enter Recovery in the Control Panel search box, and then tap or click Recovery. If you need additional help refreshing, resetting, or restoring your PC, check out the Repair and Recovery community pages in the Windows forum for solutions that other people have found for problems they’ve experienced.

 
 

 

Windows 8.1 pro factory reset free. How to refresh, reset, or restore your Windows 8.1 PC

 
Cookie Settings. The steps from here are the same for Windows 11 and Windows

 
 

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